- Meal Planning
- Food Production
- Methods Of Diet Indent
- Meal Time
- Methods Of Delivery And Service
- Quality Control and Monitoring
The ‘Exchange System’ is used as the basis of menu planning for both Regular and Therapeutic diets (Table1).An exchange list is a group of foods in which specified amounts of the foods listed are approximately equal in carbohydrate , protein and fat value. Thus, any food within a given list can be substituted or exchanged for any other food in that list.
When the desired level of intake is specified, the diet is constructed from the exchange list. The portion size (weight of edible portion) indicated in the manual refers to cooked food.
From the practical aspect, we have taken into consideration various other factors (such as variety of choice, color, texture and flavor) whilst planning the menu. Preparation methods, in line with healthy cooking principles, are also considered. The methods include boiling, braising, pan-frying, stir-frying, combi-steaming and combi-baking.
Appetite, age, sex and religion may affect food consumption and the recommended nutrients intake may not be met .Dietitians will overcome this challenge by met and manage patient’s problems individually.
In line with the above factors, our menus provide four different main menus:
- Menu A: Spicy
- Menu B : Non Spicy
- Menu C : Grilled
- Menu D : Soup
- Menu E : Porridge + Chicken soup (Soft Diet)
Every patient will get menu A/ B / C together with soup (menu D) and vegetables during lunch and dinner. We also provide breakfast and afternoon tea for patients. Typically a two – week cycle of menu is planned.
TABLE 1: FOOD EXCHANGE LIST ACCORDING TO FOOD GROUPS
Cereal , grain products & starchy vegetables
Lean meat , poultry & meat substitute
Fish & Shellfish
Skim milk (1% fat)
Low fat milk (2% fat)
Whole milk (full cream)
Source: Suzana S, Rafidah G, Noor Aini MY , Nik Shanita S , Zahara AM. Atlas Makanan: Saiz Pertukaran dan Porsi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2002.
Food prepared based on standardize recipes. An important tool for production control is the standardized recipes. It enables the manager to predict quality, quantity and portion cost of the finished product. It also simplifies purchasing. Use of the standardize recipes is helpful in training new or substitute production employees and help management avoid being subjected to the whims of , and changes in , personnel.
Clients expect and should be able, to depend on having consistent food character and quality. Thus, accuracy in the use of standardized recipes and in weighing and measuring ingredients takes the guesswork out of mass food production. Continual training in the preparation of diets is provided by the dietitian for cooks.
Methods of Diet Indent
The diet indent system ranges from non-computerized (using standard form) to computer based approach (using standard IT program).
Diet for New Admission or change of Diet Order:
Changes or addition of diets are to be notified by phone to Hospital’s Kitchen followed immediately by update the information in the indent system.
Diets for newly admitted patients are available if the order is made before 4.00 pm on the day of admission. New diets requested or served may not necessarily be the same as that on the regular menu. Immediate change of the diet for a particular patient may not be possible when made near serving time. However, the change will take effect the following meal.
Breakfast : 7.30 am – 8.30 am
Lunch : 11.45 am – 1.00 pm
Afternoon Tea : 2.45 pm – 3.45 pm
Dinner : 6.00 pm – 7.30 pm
Methods of Delivery and Service
In the centralized food service system, as practiced by HUSM (except for psychiatric ward), prepared food is apportioned for individual plates / trays and assembled at the central area in the main kitchen. The completed orders are then transported and distributed to the patient in ward. Used trays / plates and dishes are returned to the central area for washing.
Centralized delivery systems are prevalent today because of the need to closely supervise and control food quality, portion size, assurance of correct menu items on each tray or order and correct food temperatures at the point of service.
Quality Control and Monitoring
We have implemented several measures to ensure and monitor quality of food served to patients.
- Procurement of Raw Foods and Storage
The first step in the production and service of quality food is procurement which entails purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing food and supplies. Inspection is done upon each product delivery to ensure that all products received are in good condition. In the event that the products received are not up to the standard required, the supplier will be required to replace it. The goods are then placed in appropriate storage.
- Food Tasting
Food tasting is done routinely to further validate our standardized recipes. Food tasting sessions is done by the dietitian as scheduled and the data was analyze every month .The analyzed data will be presented in monthly department/ unit meeting.
- Food portioning / Trayline
The Dietitian / Assistant Catering Officer personally supervise the trayline to ensure that choices, portion sizes and types of diet ordered are correct for patients.
- Food Survey ~Customer Satisfaction
We strive to make our customers happy and satisfied through feedback received by conducting surveys at ward level periodically. Feedback gathered serves as a tool for continuous improvement.
- Regular Meetings
Regular meeting are held to discuss any issues that need to be resolved.
We view complaints received from clients positively and strive to continuously improve.