STANDARD DIET MANUAL

The Standard Diets utilize the Food Pyramid, Exchange Lists, and other guides for meal planning. The diet is designed to achieve or maintain an optimal nutritional status in people who do not require medical nutrition therapy. It is also used to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic nutrition-related diseases. The diet also provides a basis for modified diets.

  • Regular / Normal Diet and a Guide To Healthy Eating
  • Pregnancy & Lactation
  • Pediatric
  • Geriatric
  • Vegetarian

REGULAR / NORMAL DIET AND A GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING

 

The Regular / Normal Diet utilize the Food Pyramid, Exchange Lists, and other guides for meal planning. The diet is designed to achieve or maintain an optimal nutritional status in people who do not require medical nutrition therapy. It is also used to promote health and reduce the risk of chronic nutrition-related diseases. The diet also provides a basis for modified diets.

Menus for Normal Diet are divided into 2 which is Menu A and B. The menus are rotated for 2 weeks cycle. Menus are planned taking into consideration the Malaysian RDA. However, nutritional adequacy will depend on the patient’s food intake.

Meals Distribution Regular Diet (Menu A/B)

 

Exc

E(kcal)

CHO(g)

Prot(g)

Fat(g)

BF

LN

AT

DN

Cereals

11

825

165

22

5.5

3

3

2

3

Vegetable

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

Fruit

1

60

15

-

-

-

1

-

-

Chicken

3

195

-

21

12

1

-

-

2

Fish

2

70

-

14

2

-

2

-

-

Fat

7

315

-

-

35

2

2

1

2

Skim Milk

1

90

15

8

-

1/2

-

1/2

-

Sugar

2

120

30

-

-

1

-

1

-

Total

 

1675

225

65

54.5

 

Percentage

 

54%

16%

30%

 

Normal Diet (Menu A/B) 1700kcal

(Sample Menu)

Breakfast

 

Rice / mee / meehoon                        ± 1 ½ cup

            + meat                         ± 1 mb

            + oil                             ± 2 tsp

            + vegetable                            

OR

Chocolate bun                         1 pcs

OR

Sandwich                                ± 3 slices

            + meat/sardine            ± 1 mb

            + margarine                ± 2 tsp

            + vegetable

AND

Tea / Coffee

            + Skim Milk                 ± 2 tbsp

            + Sugar                       ± 1 tbsp

Lunch

 

Rice                                         ± 1 ½ cup

+ Fish / chicken          ± 1 pc

+ Vegetable                 ± ½ cup          

            + Oil                            ± 2 tsp

            + Soup                                    ± ½ bowl           

Fruit/ Dessert                          1 portion

Afternoon Tea

Malay Kueh                             1 pc

OR

Cream Crackers Biscuits       3 pcs

AND

Tea / Coffee

            + Skim Milk                 ± 2 tbsp

            + Sugar                       ± 1 tbsp

Dinner

Rice                                         ± 1 ½ cup

            + Fish / chicken          ± 1 pc

+ Vegetable                 ± ½ cup

            + Oil                            ± 2 tsp

            + Soup                                    ± ½ bowl

PEDIATRIC DIET

 

Adequate nutrition is critical to child health and development. The Pediatric Diet is designed to meet nutritional needs, especially during periods of accelerated growth, in a form that is compatible with developmental ability.

Pediatric diets range from infant formula to adult regular diet. By the basis, we offer two major types of diet for pediatric wards, which are Normal Diet (Menu B) and Soft Diet (Menu E). However, the child’s diet should be ordered based on his requirement and disease condition.

For the pediatric’s Normal Diet, we named Menu B which is non spicy menus. While Soft Diet for pediatric wards is also same with the other wards except drinks.

Meals Distribution Pediatric Normal Diet (Menu B)

 

Exc

E(kcal)

CHO(g)

Prot(g)

Fat(g)

BF

LN

AT

DN

Cereals

11

825

165

22

5.5

3

3

2

3

Vegetable

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

Fruit

1

60

15

-

-

-

1

-

-

Chicken

3

195

-

21

12

1

-

-

2

Fish

2

70

-

14

2

-

2

-

-

Full Cream Milk

1

150

10

8

9

1/2

-

1/2

-

Fat

7

315

-

-

35

2

2

1

2

Sugar

2

120

30

-

-

1

-

1

-

Total

 

1735

220

65

63.5

       

Percentage

   

51%

16%

33%

       

 

Normal Pediatric Diet (Menu B) 1700 kcal

(Sample Menu)

Breakfast

 

Rice / mee / meehoon                        ± 1 ½ cup

            + meat                         ± 1 mb

            + oil                             ± 2 tsp

            + vegetable                            

OR

Chocolate bun                         1 pcs

OR

Sandwich                                ± 3 slices

            + meat/sardine            ± 1 mb

            + margarine                ± 2 tsp

            + vegetable

AND

Full Cream Milk                      ± 2 tbsp

            + Chocolate powder   ± 1 tsp

            + Sugar                       ± 2 tsp

Lunch

Rice                                         ± 1 ½ cup

            + Fish / chicken          ± 1 pc

            + Vegetable                 ± ½ cup

            + Oil                            ± 2 tsp

            + Soup                                    ± ½ bowl

 Fruit/ Dessert                         1 portion

Afternoon Tea

Malay Kueh                             1 pc

OR

Cream Crackers Biscuits       3 pcs

AND

Full Cream Milk                      ± 2 tbsp

            + Chocolate powder   ± 1 tsp

            + Sugar                       ± 2 tsp

Dinner

Rice                                         ± 1 ½ cup

            + Fish / chicken          ± 1 pc

            + Vegetable                 ± ½ cup

            + Oil                            ± 2 tsp

            + Soup                                    ± ½ bowl

Meals Distribution Pediatric Soft Diet (Menu E)

 

Exc

E(kcal)

CHO(g)

Prot(g)

Fat(g)

BF

LN

AT

DN

Cereals

9

675

135

18

4.5

3

2

2

2

Vegetable

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

Fruit

1

60

15

-

-

-

1

-

-

Chicken

5

325

-

35

20

1

2

-

2

Full Cream Milk

1

150

10

8

9

1/2

-

1/2

-

Fat

5

225

-

-

25

2

1

1

1

Sugar

2

120

30

-

-

1

-

1

-

Total

 

1555

190

61

58.5

   

 

Soft Diet for Pediatric (Menu E) 1600kcal

(Sample Menu)

Breakfast

White Bread                            ± 3 pcs

            + Margarine                ± 2 tsp

            + Jam                          ± 1 portion

            + Egg                          1 egg

OR

Chocolate bun                         1 pcs

OR

Sandwich                                ± 3 slices

            + meat/sardine            ± 1 mb

            + margarine                ± 2 tsp

            + vegetable

AND

Full Cream Milk                      ± 2 tbsp

            + Chocolate powder   ± 1 tsp

            + Sugar                       ± 2 tsp

Lunch

 

Rice Porridge                          ± 2 cup

            + Chicken in soup       ± 1 pc

            + Oil                            ± 1 tsp

            + Mix Vegetable

Fruit/ Dessert                          1 portion

Afternoon Tea

Malay Kueh                             1 pc

OR

Creamy Bread                                    1 pcs

AND

Full Cream Milk                      ± 2 tbsp

            + Chocolate powder   ± 1 tsp

            + Sugar                       ± 2 tsp

Dinner

 

Rice Porridge                          ± 2 cup

            + Chicken in soup       ± 1 pc

            + Oil                            ± 1 tsp

            + Mix vegetable

DIET DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

Pregnancy and lactation is an anabolic state in the life cycle occurring in women of childbearing age. Adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation influences a favorable course and outcome for the mother and fetus or infant.

The diet should be well-balanced an in normal-nourished women, an additional intake of 360 kcal/day is required during the second and 470 kcal/day during the third trimester of pregnancy. While an additional of 500kcal/day for lactating mother who’s the infant of  0 to 6 months of age. Adequate protein intake is important for normal fetal growth and the development of maternal accessory tissues.

For our practice, we provide Normal Adult Diet (Standard Diet) which consisting of Menu A and B for obstetrical wards as pregnancy mother needs well-balanced diet that is made up all nutrients based on Malaysian Food Pyramid. While for postnatal ward, we provide modified normal diet which is the main dish (fish or meat) is only grilled.

GERIATRIC DIET

(Nutritional consideration and nutritional needs of the elderly)

Physiological changes take place with increasing age hence the nutritional requirements also change accordingly. During old age, energy requirements are less as the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) starts decreasing from the age of 35. The requirement of energy reduces at the rate of about 5% to 20% between the age of 35 to 70 years. To cater to this change in requirement calorie intake should be reduced to maintain ideal body weight as per age and body frame. Overweight individuals need to reduce and attain ideal body weight.

While protein, minerals and vitamins requirements remain unchanged, higher intake of minerals and vitamins especially calcium, iron, B complex vitamins and vitamin D may help. These aid the processes of digestion, absorption and utilization as they do not function at an optimal level.

Dietary considerations

  • Intake of adequate amount of soluble and insoluble fiber to combat constipation.
  • Sufficient intake of fluids for proper elimination of waste products, stimulates peristalsis and thereby reduces constipation.
  • Intake of easily digestible and soft food.

VEGETARIAN DIET

 

Vegetarian diets are practiced by certain groups of people for reasons of health, economy, religion, ecology or philosophy. The diets are most frequently classified according to the extent by which animal foods are excluded.

Vegetarian diet’s source of protein are from plants such as legumes, seeds, nuts and grain-cereals which are incomplete in their protein quality since they may be deficient in some essential amino acids. However, when vegetable protein sources are combined correctly, such a meal can provide a complete protein of nutritionally sound quality.

Classification of Vegetarian Diet

 

  • Vegan - Eat only foods of plant origin.
  • Lacto-vegetarian - Eat plant foods + milk and dairy products
  • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian - Consume plant foods + milk and dairy products + eggs

There are 4 food groups have to be used by a vegan in order to get essential amino acid. The food groups are:

  1. Grain and cereals
  2. Milk and milk products
  3. Seeds
  4. Legumes

A vegan can get a complete protein in their diet if combining at least 2 from 4 food groups above.

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  • Kemaskini: Wednesday 30 November 2022.
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